Ontology Design Patterns (ODP)
A catalog of ontology design patterns. Homepage: http://ontologydesignpatterns.org
A generic pattern usable for all situations that require a temporal indexing.
The time interval pattern. This pattern is extracted from DOLCE-UltraLite by partial clone of elements and expansion. Two datatype properties have been added which allow to express the boundaries of the time interval. Ranges of datatype properties are not indicated, because otherwise specializing them with different xsd datatypes would lead to inconsistencies.
This CP allows designers to make assertions on roles played by agents without involving the agents that play that roles, and vice versa. It allows to express neither the context type in which tasks are defined, not the particular context in which the action is carried out. Moreover, it does not allow to express the time at which the task is executed through the action (for actions that do not solely executed that certain task).
Co-participation allows to model the relation between two objects that par ticipate in a same event (implicitly); n-ary participation allows to model par ticipation over different dimensions e.g., temporal, spatial, etc., as well as explicitly relate more than one object to the same event; object role, n-ary classiﬁcation are examples of CPs that can be composed with this CP.
The parameter content ontology design pattern. This CP is extracted from the DOLCE Ultra Lite ontology. It represents parameters which are constraints or selections on observable values.
An ontology of information objects, encodings and realizations, as a plugin to DOLCE-Ultralite (reusing mainly the
dul:realizes relations from it). Several patterns are contained inside this ontology:
- encodings of information entities
- kinds of realizations (gestural motions, depictions, digital, multimedia, speech, etc.)
- combinatorial relations between information objects
- relations between formal expressions and generalized expressions (lexicalizations, formalizations)
- relations between formal expressions and their assignments in formal semantics
- relations between information objects and schemata (data structures, KOS, etc.)
- kinds of linguistic objects
- copies, reproductions, etc.
- cultural combination of information objects (reuse, mixing, metaphorical blending).
A lighter OWL axiomatization of DOLCE and the DnS upper ontology. The DOLCE component of this ontology is a simplification of some parts of DOLCE Lite-Plus. Main aspects in which DOLCE+DnS Ultralite departs from DOLCE Lite-Plus are the following:
- The names of classes and relations have been made more intuitive
- The DnS-related part is closer to the newer constructive DnS ontology.
- Temporal and spatial relations are simplified
- Qualities and regions are more relaxed than in DOLCE-Full: they can be used as attributes of any entity; an axiom states that each quality has a region
- Axiomatization makes use of simpler constructs than DOLCE Lite-Plus
- The architecture of the ontology is pattern-based, which means that DOLCE+DnS Ultralite is also available in modules, called ‘content ontology design patterns’, which can be applied independently in the design of domain ontologies. If many modules are needed in a same ontology project, it is anyway useful to use this integrated version.
The final result is a lightweight, easy-to-apply foundational ontology for modeling either physical or social contexts. Several extensions of DOLCE+DnS Ultralite have been designed:
- Information objects
- Legal domain
- Lexical and semiotic domains
- DOLCE-Zero is a commonsense-oriented generalisation of some top-level classes, which allows to use DOLCE with tolerance against ambiguities like abstract vs. concrete information, locations vs. physical artifacts, event occurrences vs. event types, events vs. situations, qualities vs. regions, etc.; etc.
A supplementary ontology used as a generalization of DOLCE+DnS Ultralite (DUL), in order to deal with the systematic polysemy of many lexical items, whose senses create problems when used as OWL classes. For example, it's customary to find lexical items that carry both a sense of physical or abstract location, of event or event type, etc.
This annotation property is used for exemplifying possible requirements the content pattern provides a solution for. Requirements are expressed as natural language competency questions.
This pattern can be used to represent an agent that is acting in order to forward the action of a social (non-physical) agent.
An ontology designer is able to express relations like delegation, working for, etc. It is not possible to express either time indexing (the situation pattern should be specialized to that purpose), nor the role or task, under which the social action is carried out by the physical agent (the description & situation pattern should be used instead).
An ontology of systems, plugins to DOLCE Ultralite. OWL engineering by Aldo Gangemi.
A content ontology pattern that encodes a basic semiotic theory, by reusing the situation pattern. The basic classes are: Expression, Meaning, Reference (the semiotic triangle), LinguisticAct (for the pragmatics), and Agent. A linguistic act is said to be context for expressions, with their meanings and references, and agents involved. Based on this pattern, several specific linguistic acts, such as ‘tagging’, ‘translating’, ‘defining’, ‘formalizing’, etc. can be defined, so constituting a formal vocabulary for a pragmatic web. This pattern has been extracted from a larger reference ontology, LMM, which is used in conjunction with DOLCE+DnS, in order to provide a metamodel to Wordnet, Linked Open Data, natural language processing data, etc.
DOLCE-Lite-Plus (DLP) consists of version 3.9 of DOLCE-Lite (updated to D18 of DOLCE-Full) with some basic extensions.