The LinkedGeoData data set is a large spatial knowledge base which has been derived from OpenStreetMap.

In order to employ the Web as a medium for data and information integration, comprehensive datasets and vocabularies are required as they enable the disambiguation and alignment of other data and information. Many real-life information integration and aggregation tasks are impossible without comprehensive background knowledge related to spatial features of the ways, structures and landscapes surrounding us.

LinkedGeoData uses the comprehensive OpenStreetMap spatial data collection to create a large spatial knowledge base. It consists of more than 3 billion nodes and 300 million ways and the resulting RDF data comprises approximately 20 billion triples. The data is available according to the Linked Data principles and interlinked with DBpedia and GeoNames.

Version: 2015-11-02

This is a draft RDF vocabulary for representing spatial data sets in INSPIRE as RDF. This vocabulary has been created using the “Guidelines for the RDF encoding of spatial data”.

The use of RDF is optional and does not supersede or replace the requirements regarding encoding specified in Clause 9 of the INSPIRE Data Specifications. This optional encoding is intended to support the e-government and open data community in Europe, which is increasingly looking at RDF to represent data.

This is a draft version. It has limitations and is expected to contain errors. Please report any issues or concerns in GitHub.

This ontology contains classes and properties that have been derived from the INSPIRE Addresses application schema.

During the derivation, the following mappings, alignments, and omissions have been applied:

  • Mappings:

    • Code list values are mapped to skos:Concept.
    • The properties beginLifespanVersion, endLifespanVersion, validFrom, and validTo are mapped to the global properties defined by the base ontology.
    • Geometry types are mapped to classes from the Simple Feature ontology.
  • Alignments (through subsumption):

    • Spatial object types are aligned with gsp:Feature.
    • Type Address is aligned with locn:Address.
    • Type ThoroughfareNameValue is aligned with gn:GeographicalName
    • Properties of spatial object types with value type GeographicalName are aligned to property locn:geographicName.
    • Properties with a geometry value type are aligned to locn:geometry and gsp:hasDefaultGeometry.
  • Omissions:

    • Property inspireId is omitted. See the guidelines for further details.
    • Property ThoroughfareNameValue.name is omitted.
    • Type AddressRepresentation is omitted. Whenever this type is used as value type, then in the RDF encoding the RDF implementation of type Address is used. For further details, see the guidelines.
  • Restructuring:

    • Property GeographicPosition.default is transformed into a new property defaultPosition on class Address.

Version: 1.0.0

The OSi ‘boundary’ dataset includes a 20m generalised geometry of the boundaries of the administrative units (e.g., county, city, and rural area) of the Republic of Ireland using the ITM coordinate reference system.

Version: 2019

This is a draft RDF vocabulary for representing spatial data sets in INSPIRE as RDF. This vocabulary has been created using the “Guidelines for the RDF encoding of spatial data”.

The use of RDF is optional and does not supersede or replace the requirements regarding encoding specified in Clause 9 of the INSPIRE Data Specifications. This optional encoding is intended to support the e-government and open data community in Europe, which is increasingly looking at RDF to represent data.

This is a draft version. It has limitations and is expected to contain errors. Please report any issues or concerns in GitHub.

This ontology contains classes and properties that have been derived from the INSPIRE Administrative Units application schema.

The following properties have been encoded with global scope (see guidelines for further details):

  • AdministrativeBoundary.country

During the derivation, the following mappings, alignments, and omissions have been applied:

  • Mappings:

    • Code list and enumeration values are mapped to skos:Concept.
    • The properties beginLifespanVersion and endLifespanVersion are mapped to the global properties defined by the base ontology.
    • Geometry types are mapped to classes from the Simple Feature ontology.
    • Property AdministrativeUnit.country is mapped to the global property country from this ontology.
  • Alignments (through subsumption):

    • Spatial object types are aligned with gsp:Feature.
    • Properties of spatial object types with value type GeographicalName are aligned to property locn:geographicName.
    • Properties with a geometry value type are aligned to locn:geometry and gsp:hasDefaultGeometry.
  • Omissions:

    • Property inspireId is omitted. See the guidelines for further details.

Version: 1.0.0

This is a draft RDF vocabulary for representing spatial data sets in INSPIRE as RDF. This vocabulary has been created using the “Guidelines for the RDF encoding of spatial data”.

The use of RDF is optional and does not supersede or replace the requirements regarding encoding specified in Clause 9 of the INSPIRE Data Specifications. This optional encoding is intended to support the e-government and open data community in Europe, which is increasingly looking at RDF to represent data.

This is a draft version. It has limitations and is expected to contain errors. Please report any issues or concerns in GitHub.

This ontology contains classes and properties that have been derived from the INSPIRE Base Types & Base Types2 application schemas. Additional classes implement types from the INSPIRE foundation schemas for which no suitable ontology representation has been identified yet.

The following properties with global scope (see guidelines for further details) have been added to this ontology, for re-use by importing ontologies:

  • beginLifespanVersion
  • endLifespanVersion
  • validFrom
  • validTo

During the derivation, the following mappings, alignments, and omissions have been applied:

  • Mappings:

    • Code list and enumeration values are mapped to skos:Concept.
    • Type Identifier is mapped to rdfs:Resource.
    • Type SpatialDataSet is mapped to dcat:Dataset.
    • Type PT_FreeText is mapped to rdf:langString.
    • Type TM_Position is mapped to time:TemporalPosition.
  • Alignments (through subsumption):

    • Property Contact.address is aligned to property locn:address.
  • Omissions:

    • The types Identifier and SpatialDataSet have not been converted. They are mapped as described before.
    • Property DocumentCitation.date has been omitted. A value for this property can be encoded using the DC-Terms properties ‘created’, ‘issued’, and ‘modified’. See the guidelines for further details.

Version: 1.0.0

Boundary-Line™ contains all levels of electoral and administrative boundaries, from district, wards and civil parishes or communities up to parliamentary, assembly and European constituencies.

Version: 1.0.0

This is a draft RDF vocabulary for representing spatial data sets in INSPIRE as RDF. This vocabulary has been created using the “Guidelines for the RDF encoding of spatial data”.

The use of RDF is optional and does not supersede or replace the requirements regarding encoding specified in Clause 9 of the INSPIRE Data Specifications. This optional encoding is intended to support the e-government and open data community in Europe, which is increasingly looking at RDF to represent data.

This is a draft version. It has limitations and is expected to contain errors. Please report any issues or concerns in GitHub.

This ontology contains classes and properties that have been derived from the INSPIRE Buildings Base application schema.

The following properties have been encoded with global scope (see guidelines for further details):

  • BuildingGeometry2D.horizontalGeometryReference
  • BuildingGeometry2D.horizontalGeometryEstimatedAccuracy
  • BuildingGeometry2D.verticalGeometryEstimatedAccuracy

During the derivation, the following mappings, alignments, and omissions have been applied:

  • Mappings:

    • Code list values are mapped to skos:Concept.
    • The properties beginLifespanVersion and endLifespanVersion are mapped to the global properties defined by the base ontology.
    • Geometry types are mapped to classes from the Simple Feature ontology.
  • Alignments (through subsumption):

    • Spatial object types are aligned with gsp:Feature.
    • Properties of spatial object types with value type GeographicalName are aligned to property locn:geographicName.
    • Properties with a geometry value type are aligned to locn:geometry and gsp:hasDefaultGeometry.
  • Omissions:

    • Property inspireId is omitted. See the guidelines for further details.

Version: 1.0.0

This is a draft RDF vocabulary for representing spatial data sets in INSPIRE as RDF. This vocabulary has been created using the “Guidelines for the RDF encoding of spatial data”.

The use of RDF is optional and does not supersede or replace the requirements regarding encoding specified in Clause 9 of the INSPIRE Data Specifications. This optional encoding is intended to support the e-government and open data community in Europe, which is increasingly looking at RDF to represent data.

This is a draft version. It has limitations and is expected to contain errors. Please report any issues or concerns in GitHub.

This ontology contains classes and properties that have been derived from the INSPIRE Buildings 2D application schema.

The following properties have been encoded with global scope (see guidelines for further details):

  • Building.geometry2D

During the derivation, the following mappings, alignments, and omissions have been applied:

  • Mappings:

    • Property BuildingPart.geometry2D is mapped to the global property geometry2D from this ontology.
  • Alignments (through subsumption):

    • Spatial object types are aligned with gsp:Feature.
  • Omissions: none

Version: 1.0.0

This is a draft RDF vocabulary for representing spatial data sets in INSPIRE as RDF. This vocabulary has been created using the “Guidelines for the RDF encoding of spatial data”.

The use of RDF is optional and does not supersede or replace the requirements regarding encoding specified in Clause 9 of the INSPIRE Data Specifications. This optional encoding is intended to support the e-government and open data community in Europe, which is increasingly looking at RDF to represent data.

This is a draft version. It has limitations and is expected to contain errors. Please report any issues or concerns in GitHub.

This ontology contains classes and properties that have been derived from the INSPIRE Buildings 3D application schema.

The following properties have been encoded with global scope (see guidelines for further details):

  • Building.geometry3DLoD1
  • Building.geometry3DLoD2
  • Building.geometry3DLoD3
  • Building.geometry3DLoD4

During the derivation, the following mappings, alignments, and omissions have been applied:

  • Mappings:

    • GM_MultiCurve and GM_MultiSurface are mapped to the according classes from the Simple Feature ontology.
    • GM_Solid is mapped to the according class from the GML ontology.
    • Properties geometry2D are mapped to the global property geometry2D from the buildings 2D ontology.
    • Properties horizontalGeometryReference, verticalGeometryEstimatedAccuracy, and horizontalGeometryReference are mapped to the according global properties from the buildings base ontology.
    • Properties BuildingPart.geometry3DLoDX (with X=1,2,3,4) are mapped to the global properties geometry3DLoDX (with X=1,2,3,4) from this ontology.
  • Alignments (through subsumption):

    • Spatial object types are aligned with gsp:Feature.
    • Properties with a geometry value type are aligned to locn:geometry and gsp:hasGeometry.
  • Omissions: none

Version: 1.0.0

The OSi ‘building’ dataset includes a point geometry (ITM coordinate reference system), along with building form and function details. Please see the Geospatial Form and Function (Geoff) ontology (avaliable here) which provides explainations of the different forms and functions of the building data. The following table allows building data to be downloaded in the RDF N3 format. Currently the buildng data for County Galway is available.

Version: 1.0.0

Code-Point® Open contains postcode units for Great Britain, each of which has a precise geographic location.

There are approximately 1.7 million postcode units in England, Scotland and Wales. Each contains an average of fifteen adjoining addresses.

Version: 1.0.0

This is a draft RDF vocabulary for representing spatial data sets in INSPIRE as RDF. This vocabulary has been created using the “Guidelines for the RDF encoding of spatial data”.

The use of RDF is optional and does not supersede or replace the requirements regarding encoding specified in Clause 9 of the INSPIRE Data Specifications. This optional encoding is intended to support the e-government and open data community in Europe, which is increasingly looking at RDF to represent data.

This is a draft version. It has limitations and is expected to contain errors. Please report any issues or concerns in GitHub.

This ontology contains classes and properties that have been derived from the INSPIRE Cadastral Parcels application schema.

The following properties have been encoded with global scope (see guidelines for further details):

  • CadastralParcel.referencePoint

During the derivation, the following mappings, alignments, and omissions have been applied:

  • Mappings:

    • Code list values are mapped to skos:Concept.
    • The properties beginLifespanVersion, endLifespanVersion, validFrom, and validTo are mapped to the global properties defined by the base ontology.
    • Geometry types are mapped to classes from the Simple Feature ontology.
    • Property label is mapped to rdfs:label.
    • Property CadastralZoning.referencePoint is mapped to the global property referencePoint from this ontology.
  • Alignments (through subsumption):

    • Spatial object types are aligned with gsp:Feature.
    • Properties of spatial object types with value type GeographicalName are aligned to property locn:geographicName.
    • Properties CadastralParcel.geometry, CadastralBoundary.geometry, and CadastralZoning.geometry are aligned to locn:geometry and gsp:hasDefaultGeometry.
    • Property CadastralParcel.referencePoint is aligned to locn:geometry and gsp:hasGeometry.
  • Omissions:

    • Property inspireId is omitted. See the guidelines for further details.

Version: 1.0.0

1:50 000 Scale Gazetteer contains over 250 000 place names and is the most detailed gazetteer available.

Version: 1.0.0

GeoSPARQL functions for performing non-topological spatial operations.

Version: 1.0.0

This vocabulary defines the geospatial information systems concepts of form and function that may be applied to any geospatial feature to classify it or to further describe its shape and use. It extends the OGC GeoSPARQL ontology by defining two new classes and two new properties that may be associated with a GeoSPARQL geospatial feature entity. Most forms and functions are highly relevant for the built environment but any geospatial entity may gain from having a form and/or a function associated with it.

Version: 1.0.0

A description of the RFC 7946 GeoJSON model. See this link for vocabulary developments.

Version: 1.0.0

Geo OWL provides an ontology which closely matches the GeoRSS feature model and which utilizes the existing GeoRSS vocabulary for geographic properties and classes. The practical consequence is that fragments of GeoRSS XML within RSS 1.0 or Atom which conform to the GeoRSS specification will also conform to the Geo OWL ontology (front-matter aside). Thus, the ontology provides a compatible extension of GeoRSS practice for use in more general RDF contexts.

The ontology consists of a root property _featureproperty which takes as its domain any OWL/RDF class that it makes sense (after ISO 19109) to cast as a geographic feature. The property _featureproperty has a series of subproperties. A particular subproperty is geo:where which takes as its range the abstract class _geometry.

Subclasses of _geometry include gml:Point, gml:Linestring, gml:Polygon, and gml:Envelope after the corresponding GML objects. The properties of these classes are a subset of the corresponding properties defined in the GML model and schema. This represents GeoRSS GML.

Other subproperties of geo:where represent GeoRSS Simple and include geo:Point, geo:Line, geo:Polygon, geo:Circle, and geo:Box. These properties each take a literal list of doubles as their range, but are equivalent in definition to (are a shorthand for) geo:where plus the corresponding GeoRSS GML classes and their properties.

For backwards compatibility, geo:lat and geo:long are retained as subproperties of geo:where, but are taken together as the equivalent of geo:where plus gml:Point plus gml:pos, or of geo:Point.

Another set of subproperties of _featureproperty further define the ‘featureness’ of whatever class the geometry properties are applied to. They include geo:featurename, geo:featuretype, geo:relationship, geo:elev, geo:floor, and geo:radius. The nominal ranges of the first three properties are literal strings (for the latter three, doubles), but are envisioned to represent or evolve first into ‘folksonomies’ and later into more formal ontology concepts.

The Geo OWL vocabulary is nominally classified as OWL Lite, but what this designation means for decidability in terms of spatial reasoning is at present uncertain.

Version: 2007

The OpenGIS® Geography Markup Language Encoding Standard (GML) The Geography Markup Language (GML) is an XML grammar for expressing geographical features. GML serves as a modeling language for geographic systems as well as an open interchange format for geographic transactions on the Internet. As with most XML based grammars, there are two parts to the grammar – the schema that describes the document and the instance document that contains the actual data. A GML document is described using a GML Schema. This allows users and developers to describe generic geographic data sets that contain points, lines and polygons. However, the developers of GML envision communities working to define community-specific application schemas that are specialized extensions of GML. Using application schemas, users can refer to roads, highways, and bridges instead of points, lines and polygons. If everyone in a community agrees to use the same schemas they can exchange data easily and be sure that a road is still a road when they view it. Clients and servers with interfaces that implement the OpenGIS® Web Feature Service Interface Standard read and write GML data. GML is also an ISO standard (ISO 19136:2007).

Version: 3.2.1

This is a draft RDF vocabulary for representing spatial data sets in INSPIRE as RDF. This vocabulary has been created using the “Guidelines for the RDF encoding of spatial data”.

The use of RDF is optional and does not supersede or replace the requirements regarding encoding specified in Clause 9 of the INSPIRE Data Specifications. This optional encoding is intended to support the e-government and open data community in Europe, which is increasingly looking at RDF to represent data.

This is a draft version. It has limitations and is expected to contain errors. Please report any issues or concerns in GitHub.

This ontology contains classes and properties that have been derived from the INSPIRE Geographical Names application schema.

During the derivation, the following mappings, alignments, and omissions have been applied:

  • Mappings:

    • Code list values are mapped to skos:Concept.
    • The properties beginLifespanVersion and endLifespanVersion are mapped to the global properties defined by the base ontology.
    • Geometry types are mapped to classes from the Simple Feature ontology.
  • Alignments (through subsumption):

    • Spatial object types are aligned with gsp:Feature.
    • Type GeographicalName is aligned with skos:Concept.
    • Property NamedPlace.geometry is aligned to property locn:geometry and gsp:hasDefaultGeometry.
    • Property NamedPlace.name is aligned to property locn:geographicName.
  • Omissions:

    • Property inspireId is omitted. See the guidelines for further details.

Version: 1.0.0

The GeoNames Ontology makes it possible to add geospatial semantic information to the Word Wide Web.

Version: 3.2.0

This is a draft RDF vocabulary for representing spatial data sets in INSPIRE as RDF. This vocabulary has been created using the “Guidelines for the RDF encoding of spatial data”.

The use of RDF is optional and does not supersede or replace the requirements regarding encoding specified in Clause 9 of the INSPIRE Data Specifications. This optional encoding is intended to support the e-government and open data community in Europe, which is increasingly looking at RDF to represent data.

This is a draft version. It has limitations and is expected to contain errors. Please report any issues or concerns in GitHub.

This ontology contains classes and properties that have been derived from the INSPIRE Hydro - Network application schema.

During the derivation, the following mappings, alignments, and omissions have been applied:

  • Mappings:

    • Code list values are mapped to skos:Concept.
  • Alignments (through subsumption):

    • Spatial object types are aligned with gsp:Feature.
  • Omissions: none

Version: 1.0.0

This is a draft RDF vocabulary for representing spatial data sets in INSPIRE as RDF. This vocabulary has been created using the “Guidelines for the RDF encoding of spatial data”.

The use of RDF is optional and does not supersede or replace the requirements regarding encoding specified in Clause 9 of the INSPIRE Data Specifications. This optional encoding is intended to support the e-government and open data community in Europe, which is increasingly looking at RDF to represent data.

This is a draft version. It has limitations and is expected to contain errors. Please report any issues or concerns in GitHub.

This ontology contains classes and properties that have been derived from the INSPIRE Hydro - Physical Waters application schema.

During the derivation, the following mappings, alignments, and omissions have been applied:

  • Mappings:

    • Code list and enumeration values are mapped to skos:Concept.
    • The properties beginLifespanVersion and endLifespanVersion are mapped to the global properties defined by the base ontology.
    • Geometry types are mapped to classes from the Simple Feature ontology.
  • Alignments (through subsumption):

    • Spatial object types are aligned with gsp:Feature.
    • Properties of spatial object types with a geometry value type are aligned to locn:geometry and gsp:hasDefaultGeometry.
  • Omissions:

    • Property inspireId is omitted. See the guidelines for further details.

Version: 1.0.0

This is a draft RDF vocabulary for representing spatial data sets in INSPIRE as RDF. This vocabulary has been created using the “Guidelines for the RDF encoding of spatial data”.

The use of RDF is optional and does not supersede or replace the requirements regarding encoding specified in Clause 9 of the INSPIRE Data Specifications. This optional encoding is intended to support the e-government and open data community in Europe, which is increasingly looking at RDF to represent data.

This is a draft version. It has limitations and is expected to contain errors. Please report any issues or concerns in GitHub.

This ontology contains classes and properties that have been derived from the INSPIRE Hydro - Base application schema.

During the derivation, the following mappings, alignments, and omissions have been applied:

  • Mappings: none

  • Alignments (through subsumption):

    • Properties of spatial object types with value type GeographicalName are aligned to property locn:geographicName.
  • Omissions: none

Version: 1.0.0

The purpose of ISO 3166 is to define internationally recognized codes of letters and/or numbers that we can use when we refer to countries and their subdivisions. However, it does not define the names of countries – this information comes from United Nations sources (Terminology Bulletin Country Names and the Country and Region Codes for Statistical Use maintained by the United Nations Statistics Divisions).

Using codes saves time and avoids errors as instead of using a country's name (which will change depending on the language being used), we can use a combination of letters and/or numbers that are understood all over the world.

For example, all national postal organizations throughout the world exchange international mail in containers identified with the relevant country code. Internet domain name systems use the codes to define top-level domain names such as “.fr” for France, “.au” for Australia. In addition, in machine-readable passports, the codes are used to determine the nationality of the user and, when we send money from one bank to another, the country codes are a way to identify where the bank is based.

Version: 1.0.0

ISO 19101 defines a reference model for standardization in the field of geographic imagery processing. This reference model identifies the scope of the standardization activity being undertaken and the context in which it takes place. The reference model includes gridded data with an emphasis on imagery. Although structured in the context of information technology and information technology standards, ISO/TS 19101-2:2008 is independent of any application development method or technology implementation approach.

Version: 2008

This document defines a reference model for standardization in the field of geographic imagery processing. This reference model identifies the scope of the standardization activity being undertaken and the context in which it takes place. The reference model includes gridded data with an emphasis on imagery. Although structured in the context of information technology and information technology standards, this document is independent of any application development method or technology implementation approach.

Version: 2018

ISO TS 19103:2005 provides rules and guidelines for the use of a conceptual schema language within the ISO geographic information standards. The chosen conceptual schema language is the Unified Modeling Language (UML).

ISO TS 19103:2005 provides a profile of UML for use with geographic information. In addition, it provides guidelines on how UML should be used to create standardized geographic information and service models.

Version: 2005

ISO 19103:2015 provides rules and guidelines for the use of a conceptual schema language within the context of geographic information. The chosen conceptual schema language is the Unified Modeling Language (UML).

ISO 19103.2015 provides a profile of the Unified Modelling Language (UML).

The standardization target type of this standard is UML schemas describing geographic information.

Version: 2015

ISO 19104:2016 specifies requirements for the collection, management and publication of terminology in the field of geographic information.

The scope of this document includes

  • selection of concepts, harmonization of concepts and development of concept systems,
  • structure and content of terminological entries,
  • term selection,
  • definition preparation,
  • cultural and linguistic adaptation,
  • layout and formatting requirements in rendered documents, and
  • establishment and management of terminology registers.

ISO 19104:2016 is applicable to International Standards and Technical Specifications in the field of geographic information.

Version: 2015

ISO 19107:2003 specifies conceptual schemas for describing the spatial characteristics of geographic features, and a set of spatial operations consistent with these schemas. It treats vector geometry and topology up to three dimensions. It defines standard spatial operations for use in access, query, management, processing, and data exchange of geographic information for spatial (geometric and topological) objects of up to three topological dimensions embedded in coordinate spaces of up to three axes.

Version: 2003