The LinkedGeoData data set is a large spatial knowledge base which has been derived from OpenStreetMap.

In order to employ the Web as a medium for data and information integration, comprehensive datasets and vocabularies are required as they enable the disambiguation and alignment of other data and information. Many real-life information integration and aggregation tasks are impossible without comprehensive background knowledge related to spatial features of the ways, structures and landscapes surrounding us.

LinkedGeoData uses the comprehensive OpenStreetMap spatial data collection to create a large spatial knowledge base. It consists of more than 3 billion nodes and 300 million ways and the resulting RDF data comprises approximately 20 billion triples. The data is available according to the Linked Data principles and interlinked with DBpedia and GeoNames.

Version: 2015-11-02

Dit is een eerste test om de LOD te verkennen met een test archeologische rapporten van de gemeente Houten, die in DANS-Easy zijn opgeslagen

The LinkedGeoData data set is a large spatial knowledge base which has been derived from OpenStreetMap.

In order to employ the Web as a medium for data and information integration, comprehensive datasets and vocabularies are required as they enable the disambiguation and alignment of other data and information. Many real-life information integration and aggregation tasks are impossible without comprehensive background knowledge related to spatial features of the ways, structures and landscapes surrounding us.

LinkedGeoData uses the comprehensive OpenStreetMap spatial data collection to create a large spatial knowledge base. It consists of more than 3 billion nodes and 300 million ways and the resulting RDF data comprises approximately 20 billion triples. The data is available according to the Linked Data principles and interlinked with DBpedia and GeoNames.

Version: 2015-11-02

Digital technologies such as Linked Open Data and IIIF create new possibilities for the preservation and exploration of cultural heritage. Cultural institutions are currently exploring how these technologies can make their collections more accessible, both for humans and computers. Simply speaking, LOD can be achieved by connecting collection items to each other and additional information on the web. Institutions do this by creating and adding identifiers (URIs) to their data. URIs are online resources that are used to uniquely refer to something specific, like a person or a place. While URIs exist for places in the world, there aren’t many URIs for places within a city. So called digital gazetteers exist but their place URIs are often not granular enough to describe the location of an artefact. Institutions require urban gazetteers, so let’s make one.

You can read more on: https://vincentducatteeuw.github.io/

IMPORTANT NOTICE: This is a Work in Progress so place URIs are not stable at the moment. Please wait with linking to these place URIs until after this notice is gone.

A vocabulary for representing latitude, longitude and altitude information in the WGS84 geodetic reference datum. WGS stands for the World Geodetic Survey.

Version: 1.22.0

This is a draft RDF vocabulary for representing spatial data sets in INSPIRE as RDF. This vocabulary has been created using the “Guidelines for the RDF encoding of spatial data”.

The use of RDF is optional and does not supersede or replace the requirements regarding encoding specified in Clause 9 of the INSPIRE Data Specifications. This optional encoding is intended to support the e-government and open data community in Europe, which is increasingly looking at RDF to represent data.

This is a draft version. It has limitations and is expected to contain errors. Please report any issues or concerns in GitHub.

This ontology contains classes and properties that have been derived from the INSPIRE Common Transport Elements application schema.

During the derivation, the following mappings, alignments, and omissions have been applied:

  • Mappings:

    • Code list and enumeration values are mapped to skos:Concept.
    • The properties validFrom and validTo are mapped to the global properties defined by the base ontology.
    • Geometry types are mapped to classes from the Simple Feature ontology.
  • Alignments (through subsumption):

    • Spatial object types are aligned with gsp:Feature.
    • Properties of spatial object types with value type GeographicalName are aligned to property locn:geographicName.
    • Properties with a geometry value type are aligned to locn:geometry and gsp:hasDefaultGeometry.
  • Omissions:

    • Property inspireId is omitted. See the guidelines for further details.

Version: 1.0.0

A vocabulary describing the geometries that are defined in OGC Simple Features (points, lines, polygons, etc.)

Version: 1.0.1

Este vocabulario se utiliza para la descripción de territorios en España (incluyendo divisiones administrativas y también otros conceptos que se utilizan normalmente pero no tienen entidad jurídica, como por ejemplo barrios). Surge de la necesidad de hacer referencia a conceptos que normalmente se utilizan para describir territorios en España, y para los que no existía ningún vocabulario suficientemente completo.

Este vocabulario está en proceso de revisión continua hasta que se consolide como un vocabulario de referencia para la descripción de territorios en el contexto nacional, por lo que sus términos pueden sufrir cambios en los próximos meses.

Es importante destacar que el objetivo de este vocabulario es el de representar unidades territoriales que van desde el país hasta la sección censal. Para llegar a mayor nivel de detalle (por ejemplo, calles, tramos de calles o inmuebles) se está trabajando en otros vocabularios que extienden este y que tratan sobre el callejero o sobre la representación de direcciones postales, entre otros.

Version: 0.5.0

The Ordnance Survey is Great Britains national mapping agency, providing the most accurate and up-to-date geographic data, relied on by government, business and individuals.

OS OpenData is the opening up of Ordnance Survey data as part of the drive to increase innovation and support the “Making Public Data Public” initiative. As part of this initiative Ordnance Survey has published a number of its products as Linked Data.

Version: 1.0.0

This is a draft RDF vocabulary for representing spatial data sets in INSPIRE as RDF. This vocabulary has been created using the “Guidelines for the RDF encoding of spatial data”.

The use of RDF is optional and does not supersede or replace the requirements regarding encoding specified in Clause 9 of the INSPIRE Data Specifications. This optional encoding is intended to support the e-government and open data community in Europe, which is increasingly looking at RDF to represent data.

This is a draft version. It has limitations and is expected to contain errors. Please report any issues or concerns in GitHub.

This ontology contains classes and properties that have been derived from the INSPIRE Network application schema.

The following properties have been encoded with global scope (see guidelines for further details):

  • SimplePointReference.offset

During the derivation, the following mappings, alignments, and omissions have been applied:

  • Mappings:

    • Code list values are mapped to skos:Concept.
    • The properties beginLifespanVersion and endLifespanVersion are mapped to the global properties defined by the base ontology.
    • Geometry types are mapped to classes from the Simple Feature ontology.
    • Property SimpleLinearReference.offset is mapped to the global property offset from this ontology.
  • Alignments (through subsumption):

    • Spatial object types are aligned with gsp:Feature.
    • Properties of spatial object types with value type GeographicalName are aligned to property locn:geographicName.
    • Properties with a geometry value type are aligned to locn:geometry and gsp:hasDefaultGeometry.
  • Omissions:

    • Property inspireId is omitted. See the guidelines for further details.

Version: 1.0.0

Geonovum beheert het Basismodel NEN3610. Dit is de ‘moeder’ van de Nederlandse geo-informatiemodellen. In informatiemodellen leggen we de semantiek van een domein vast. Dit zijn afspraken over begrippen en definities van gegevens en daarmee essentieel om gegevens te kunnen uitwisselen. Juist dan is het immers van belang dat voor iedereen ― mens en machine ― duidelijk is wat we met een gehanteerd begrip bedoelen.

Version: 1.0.0

This is a new version of the final draft published by the European Commission in May 2012, revised according to the results of the ISA Core Location Pilot (see Section Change History for the list of changes). It is currently under the control of the Locations and Addresses Community Group, but is not under active development or review. Comments and queries should be sent to that group via public-locadd@w3.org. Terms defined here may be deprecated by that or future groups but will not disappear or their definition change.

Version: 1.0.0

This standard sets a framework for geographic information service ontology and the description of geographic information Web services in Web Ontology Language (OWL).

OWL is the language adopted for ontologies.

This document makes use of service metadata (ISO 19115-1) and service definitions (ISO 19119) whenever appropriate.

This document does not define semantics operators, rules for ontologies, and does not develop any application ontology.

In relation to ISO 19101-1:2014, 6.2, this document defines and formalizes the following purpose of the ISO geographic information reference model:

  • geographic information service components and their behaviour for data processing purposes over the Web, and
  • OWL ontologies to cast ISO/TC 211 standards to benefit from and support the Semantic Web.

In relation to ISO 19101-1:2014, 8.3, this document addresses the Meta:Service foundation of the ISO geographic information reference model.

Version: 2019

ISO/TS 19130:2010 identifies the information required to determine the relationship between the position of a remotely sensed pixel in image coordinates and its geoposition. It supports exploitation of remotely sensed images. It defines the metadata to be distributed with the image to enable user determination of geographic position from the observations.

ISO/TS 19130:2010 specifies several ways in which information in support of geopositioning may be provided.

  1. It may be provided as a sensor description with the associated physical and geometric information necessary to rigorously construct a Physical Sensor Model. For the case where precise geoposition information is needed, ISO/TS 19130:2010 identifies the mathematical formulae for rigorously constructing Physical Sensor Models that relate two-dimensional image space to three-dimensional ground space and the calculation of the associated propagated errors. ISO/TS 19130:2010 provides detailed information for three types of passive electro-optical/infrared (IR) sensors (frame, pushbroom and whiskbroom) and for an active microwave sensing system [Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)]. It provides a framework by which these sensor models can be extended to other sensor types.
  2. It may be provided as a True Replacement Model, using functions whose coefficients are based on a Physical Sensor Model so that they provide information for precise geopositioning, including the calculation of errors, as precisely as the Physical Sensor Model they replace.
  3. It may be provided as a Correspondence Model that provides a functional fitting based on observed relationships between the geopositions of a set of ground control points and their image coordinates.
  4. It may be provided as a set of ground control points that can be used to develop a Correspondence Model or to refine a Physical Sensor Model or True Replacement Model.

ISO/TS 19130:2010 does not specify either how users derive geoposition data or the format or content of the data the users generate.

Version: 2010

This document identifies the information required to determine the relationship between the position of a remotely sensed pixel in image coordinates and its geoposition. It supports exploitation of remotely sensed images. It defines the metadata to be distributed with the image to enable user determination of geographic position from the observations.

This document specifies several ways in which information in support of geopositioning can be provided.

  1. It may be provided as a sensor description with the associated physical and geometric information necessary to rigorously construct a PSM. For the case where precise geoposition information is needed, this document identifies the mathematical equations for rigorously constructing PSMs that relate 2D image space to 3D ground space and the calculation of the associated propagated errors. This document provides detailed information for three types of passive electro-optical/ IR sensors (frame, pushbroom and whiskbroom) and for an active microwave sensing system SAR. It provides a framework by which these sensor models can be extended to other sensor types.
  2. It can be provided as a TRM, using functions whose coefficients are based on a PSM so that they provide information for precise geopositioning, including the calculation of errors, as precisely as the PSM they replace.
  3. It can be provided as a CM that provides a functional fitting based on observed relationships between the geopositions of a set of GCPs and their image coordinates.
  4. It can be provided as a set of GCPs that can be used to develop a CM or to refine a PSM or TRM.

This document does not specify either how users derive geoposition data or the format or content of the data the users generate.

Version: 2018

ISO/TS 19129:2009 defines the framework for imagery, gridded and coverage data. This framework defines a content model for the content type imagery and for other specific content types that can be represented as coverage data. These content models are represented as a set of generic UML patterns for application schemas.

Version: 2009

ISO 19128:2005 specifies the behaviour of a service that produces spatially referenced maps dynamically from geographic information. It specifies operations to retrieve a description of the maps offered by a server, to retrieve a map, and to query a server about features displayed on a map. ISO 19128:2005 is applicable to pictorial renderings of maps in a graphical format; it is not applicable to retrieval of actual feature data or coverage data values.

Version: 2005

ISO 19126:2009 specifies a schema for feature concept dictionaries to be established and managed as registers. It does not specify schemas for feature catalogues or for the management of feature catalogues as registers. However, because feature catalogue are often derived from feature concept dictionaries, ISO 19126:2009 does specify a schema for a hierarchical register of feature concept dictionaries and feature catalogues. These registers are in accordance with ISO 19135.

Version: 2009

This document specifies a concrete[1] implementable, conformance-testable coverage structure based on the abstract schema for coverages defined in the ISO 19123 schema for coverage geometry. This document defines a structure that is suitable for encoding in many encoding formats.

[1] ‘concrete’ is used here as a contrast to ‘abstract’ in the sense described in the Introduction.

Version: 2018

ISO 19119:2005 identifies and defines the architecture patterns for service interfaces used for geographic information, defines its relationship to the Open Systems Environment model, presents a geographic services taxonomy and a list of example geographic services placed in the services taxonomy. It also prescribes how to create a platform-neutral service specification, how to derive conformant platform-specific service specifications, and provides guidelines for the selection and specification of geographic services from both platform-neutral and platform-specific perspectives.

Version: 2005

ISO 19117:2012 specifies a conceptual schema for describing symbols, portrayal functions that map geospatial features to symbols, and the collection of symbols and portrayal functions into portrayal catalogues. This conceptual schema can be used in the design of portrayal systems. It allows feature data to be separate from portrayal data, permitting data to be portrayed in a dataset independent manner.

Version: 2012

ISO 19117:2005 defines a schema describing the portrayal of geographic information in a form understandable by humans. It includes the methodology for describing symbols and mapping of the schema to an application schema. It does not include standardization of cartographic symbols, and their geometric and functional description.

Version: 2005

This document specifies the data structure and content of an interface that permits communication between position-providing device(s) and position-using device(s) enabling the position-using device(s) to obtain and unambiguously interpret position information and determine, based on a measure of the degree of reliability, whether the resulting position information meets the requirements of the intended use.

A standardized interface for positioning allows the integration of reliable position information obtained from non-specific positioning technologies and is useful in various location-focused information applications, such as surveying, navigation, intelligent transportation systems (ITS), and location-based services (LBS).

Version: 2019

ISO 19116:2004 specifies the data structure and content of an interface that permits communication between position-providing device(s) and position-using device(s) so that the position-using device(s) can obtain and unambiguously interpret position information and determine whether the results meet the requirements of the use. A standardized interface of geographic information with position allows the integration of positional information from a variety of positioning technologies into a variety of geographic information applications, such as surveying, navigation and intelligent transportation systems. ISO 19116:2004 will benefit a wide range of applications for which positional information is important.

Version: 2004

ISO 19115:2006 defines the schema required for describing geographic information and services. It provides information about the identification, the extent, the quality, the spatial and temporal schema, spatial reference, and distribution of digital geographic data.

ISO 19115:2006 is applicable to:

  • the cataloguing of datasets, clearinghouse activities, and the full description of datasets;
  • geographic datasets, dataset series, and individual geographic features and feature properties.

ISO 19115:2006 defines:

  • mandatory and conditional metadata sections, metadata entities, and metadata elements;
  • the minimum set of metadata required to serve the full range of metadata applications (data discovery, determining data fitness for use, data access, data transfer, and use of digital data);
  • optional metadata elements - to allow for a more extensive standard description of geographic data, if required;

-a method for extending metadata to fit specialized needs.

Though ISO 19115:2006 is applicable to digital data, its principles can be extended to many other forms of geographic data such as maps, charts, and textual documents as well as non-geographic data.

NOTE Certain mandatory metadata elements may not apply to these other forms of data.

Version: 2006

ISO 19115:2003 defines the schema required for describing geographic information and services. It provides information about the identification, the extent, the quality, the spatial and temporal schema, spatial reference, and distribution of digital geographic data.

ISO 19115:2003 is applicable to:

  • the cataloguing of datasets, clearinghouse activities, and the full description of datasets;
  • geographic datasets, dataset series, and individual geographic features and feature properties.

ISO 19115:2003 defines:

  • mandatory and conditional metadata sections, metadata entities, and metadata elements;
  • the minimum set of metadata required to serve the full range of metadata applications (data discovery, determining data fitness for use, data access, data transfer, and use of digital data);
  • optional metadata elements - to allow for a more extensive standard description of geographic data, if required;

-a method for extending metadata to fit specialized needs.

Though ISO 19115:2003 is applicable to digital data, its principles can be extended to many other forms of geographic data such as maps, charts, and textual documents as well as non-geographic data.

NOTE Certain mandatory metadata elements may not apply to these other forms of data.

Version: 2003

ISO 19115-2:2009 extends the existing geographic metadata standard by defining the schema required for describing imagery and gridded data. It provides information about the properties of the measuring equipment used to acquire the data, the geometry of the measuring process employed by the equipment, and the production process used to digitize the raw data. This extension deals with metadata needed to describe the derivation of geographic information from raw data, including the properties of the measuring system, and the numerical methods and computational procedures used in the derivation. The metadata required to address coverage data in general is addressed sufficiently in the general part of ISO 19115.

Version: 2009

This document defines the conceptual schema for spatial references based on geographic identifiers. It establishes a general model for spatial referencing using geographic identifiers and defines the components of a spatial reference system. It also specifies a conceptual scheme for a gazetteer.

Spatial referencing by coordinates is addressed in ISO 19111. However, a mechanism for recording complementary coordinate references is included in this document.

This document enables producers of data to define spatial reference systems using geographic identifiers and assists users in understanding the spatial references used in datasets. It enables gazetteers to be constructed in a consistent manner and supports the development of other standards in the field of geographic information.

This document is applicable to digital geographic data, and its principles may be extended to other forms of geographic data such as maps, charts and textual documents.

Version: 2019

ISO 19112:2003 defines the conceptual schema for spatial references based on geographic identifiers. It establishes a general model for spatial referencing using geographic identifiers, defines the components of a spatial reference system and defines the essential components of a gazetteer. Spatial referencing by coordinates is not addressed in this document; however, a mechanism for recording complementary coordinate references is included.

ISO 19112:2003 assists users in understanding the spatial references used in datasets. It enables gazetteers to be constructed in a consistent manner and supports the development of other standards in the field of geographic information. It is applicable to digital geographic data, and its principles may be extended to other forms of geographic data such as maps, charts and textual documents.

Version: 2003

This dataset defines the conceptual schema for the description of referencing by coordinates. It describes the minimum data required to define coordinate reference systems. This document supports the definition of:

  • spatial coordinate reference systems where coordinate values do not change with time. The system may:
    • be geodetic and apply on a national or regional basis, or
    • apply locally such as for a building or construction site, or
    • apply locally to an image or image sensor;
    • be referenced to a moving platform such as a car, a ship, an aircraft or a spacecraft. Such a coordinate reference system can be related to a second coordinate reference system which is referenced to the Earth through a transformation that includes a time element;
  • spatial coordinate reference systems in which coordinate values of points on or near the surface of the earth change with time due to tectonic plate motion or other crustal deformation. Such dynamic systems include time evolution, however they remain spatial in nature;
  • parametric coordinate reference systems which use a non-spatial parameter that varies monotonically with height or depth;
  • temporal coordinate reference systems which use dateTime, temporal count or temporal measure quantities that vary monotonically with time;
  • mixed spatial, parametric or temporal coordinate reference systems.

The definition of a coordinate reference system does not change with time, although in some cases some of the defining parameters can include a rate of change of the parameter. The coordinate values within a dynamic and in a temporal coordinate reference system can change with time.

This document also describes the conceptual schema for defining the information required to describe operations that change coordinate values.

In addition to the minimum data required for the definition of the coordinate reference system or coordinate operation, the conceptual schema allows additional descriptive information - coordinate reference system metadata - to be provided.

This document is applicable to producers and users of geographic information. Although it is applicable to digital geographic data, the principles described in this document can be extended to many other forms of spatial data such as maps, charts and text documents.

Version: 2019