International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

isoCreated on Jun 21st, 2018

ISO is an independent, non-governmental international organization with a membership of 164 national standards bodies.

Through its members, it brings together experts to share knowledge and develop voluntary, consensus-based, market relevant International Standards that support innovation and provide solutions to global challenges. Homepage: https://www.iso.org

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ISO 3166 is a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) that defines codes for the names of countries, dependent territories, special areas of geographical interest, and their principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states).

This dataset contains IDs for countries, based on the following ISO 3166 identifiers:

  • the 2-letter code
  • the 3-letter code
  • the numeric code

ISO 3166-2 is part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and defines codes for identifying the principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states) of all countries coded in ISO 3166-1. The official name of the standard is Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions – Part 2: Country subdivision code. It was first published in 1998.

This standard sets a framework for geographic information service ontology and the description of geographic information Web services in Web Ontology Language (OWL).

OWL is the language adopted for ontologies.

This document makes use of service metadata (ISO 19115-1) and service definitions (ISO 19119) whenever appropriate.

This document does not define semantics operators, rules for ontologies, and does not develop any application ontology.

In relation to ISO 19101-1:2014, 6.2, this document defines and formalizes the following purpose of the ISO geographic information reference model:

  • geographic information service components and their behaviour for data processing purposes over the Web, and
  • OWL ontologies to cast ISO/TC 211 standards to benefit from and support the Semantic Web.

In relation to ISO 19101-1:2014, 8.3, this document addresses the Meta:Service foundation of the ISO geographic information reference model.

Version: 2019

ISO/TS 19130:2010 identifies the information required to determine the relationship between the position of a remotely sensed pixel in image coordinates and its geoposition. It supports exploitation of remotely sensed images. It defines the metadata to be distributed with the image to enable user determination of geographic position from the observations.

ISO/TS 19130:2010 specifies several ways in which information in support of geopositioning may be provided.

  1. It may be provided as a sensor description with the associated physical and geometric information necessary to rigorously construct a Physical Sensor Model. For the case where precise geoposition information is needed, ISO/TS 19130:2010 identifies the mathematical formulae for rigorously constructing Physical Sensor Models that relate two-dimensional image space to three-dimensional ground space and the calculation of the associated propagated errors. ISO/TS 19130:2010 provides detailed information for three types of passive electro-optical/infrared (IR) sensors (frame, pushbroom and whiskbroom) and for an active microwave sensing system [Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)]. It provides a framework by which these sensor models can be extended to other sensor types.
  2. It may be provided as a True Replacement Model, using functions whose coefficients are based on a Physical Sensor Model so that they provide information for precise geopositioning, including the calculation of errors, as precisely as the Physical Sensor Model they replace.
  3. It may be provided as a Correspondence Model that provides a functional fitting based on observed relationships between the geopositions of a set of ground control points and their image coordinates.
  4. It may be provided as a set of ground control points that can be used to develop a Correspondence Model or to refine a Physical Sensor Model or True Replacement Model.

ISO/TS 19130:2010 does not specify either how users derive geoposition data or the format or content of the data the users generate.

Version: 2010

This document identifies the information required to determine the relationship between the position of a remotely sensed pixel in image coordinates and its geoposition. It supports exploitation of remotely sensed images. It defines the metadata to be distributed with the image to enable user determination of geographic position from the observations.

This document specifies several ways in which information in support of geopositioning can be provided.

  1. It may be provided as a sensor description with the associated physical and geometric information necessary to rigorously construct a PSM. For the case where precise geoposition information is needed, this document identifies the mathematical equations for rigorously constructing PSMs that relate 2D image space to 3D ground space and the calculation of the associated propagated errors. This document provides detailed information for three types of passive electro-optical/ IR sensors (frame, pushbroom and whiskbroom) and for an active microwave sensing system SAR. It provides a framework by which these sensor models can be extended to other sensor types.
  2. It can be provided as a TRM, using functions whose coefficients are based on a PSM so that they provide information for precise geopositioning, including the calculation of errors, as precisely as the PSM they replace.
  3. It can be provided as a CM that provides a functional fitting based on observed relationships between the geopositions of a set of GCPs and their image coordinates.
  4. It can be provided as a set of GCPs that can be used to develop a CM or to refine a PSM or TRM.

This document does not specify either how users derive geoposition data or the format or content of the data the users generate.

Version: 2018

ISO/TS 19129:2009 defines the framework for imagery, gridded and coverage data. This framework defines a content model for the content type imagery and for other specific content types that can be represented as coverage data. These content models are represented as a set of generic UML patterns for application schemas.

Version: 2009

ISO 19128:2005 specifies the behaviour of a service that produces spatially referenced maps dynamically from geographic information. It specifies operations to retrieve a description of the maps offered by a server, to retrieve a map, and to query a server about features displayed on a map. ISO 19128:2005 is applicable to pictorial renderings of maps in a graphical format; it is not applicable to retrieval of actual feature data or coverage data values.

Version: 2005

ISO 19126:2009 specifies a schema for feature concept dictionaries to be established and managed as registers. It does not specify schemas for feature catalogues or for the management of feature catalogues as registers. However, because feature catalogue are often derived from feature concept dictionaries, ISO 19126:2009 does specify a schema for a hierarchical register of feature concept dictionaries and feature catalogues. These registers are in accordance with ISO 19135.

Version: 2009

This document specifies a concrete[1] implementable, conformance-testable coverage structure based on the abstract schema for coverages defined in the ISO 19123 schema for coverage geometry. This document defines a structure that is suitable for encoding in many encoding formats.

[1] ‘concrete’ is used here as a contrast to ‘abstract’ in the sense described in the Introduction.

Version: 2018

ISO 19119:2005 identifies and defines the architecture patterns for service interfaces used for geographic information, defines its relationship to the Open Systems Environment model, presents a geographic services taxonomy and a list of example geographic services placed in the services taxonomy. It also prescribes how to create a platform-neutral service specification, how to derive conformant platform-specific service specifications, and provides guidelines for the selection and specification of geographic services from both platform-neutral and platform-specific perspectives.

Version: 2005

ISO 19117:2012 specifies a conceptual schema for describing symbols, portrayal functions that map geospatial features to symbols, and the collection of symbols and portrayal functions into portrayal catalogues. This conceptual schema can be used in the design of portrayal systems. It allows feature data to be separate from portrayal data, permitting data to be portrayed in a dataset independent manner.

Version: 2012

ISO 19117:2005 defines a schema describing the portrayal of geographic information in a form understandable by humans. It includes the methodology for describing symbols and mapping of the schema to an application schema. It does not include standardization of cartographic symbols, and their geometric and functional description.

Version: 2005

This document specifies the data structure and content of an interface that permits communication between position-providing device(s) and position-using device(s) enabling the position-using device(s) to obtain and unambiguously interpret position information and determine, based on a measure of the degree of reliability, whether the resulting position information meets the requirements of the intended use.

A standardized interface for positioning allows the integration of reliable position information obtained from non-specific positioning technologies and is useful in various location-focused information applications, such as surveying, navigation, intelligent transportation systems (ITS), and location-based services (LBS).

Version: 2019

ISO 19116:2004 specifies the data structure and content of an interface that permits communication between position-providing device(s) and position-using device(s) so that the position-using device(s) can obtain and unambiguously interpret position information and determine whether the results meet the requirements of the use. A standardized interface of geographic information with position allows the integration of positional information from a variety of positioning technologies into a variety of geographic information applications, such as surveying, navigation and intelligent transportation systems. ISO 19116:2004 will benefit a wide range of applications for which positional information is important.

Version: 2004

ISO 19115:2006 defines the schema required for describing geographic information and services. It provides information about the identification, the extent, the quality, the spatial and temporal schema, spatial reference, and distribution of digital geographic data.

ISO 19115:2006 is applicable to:

  • the cataloguing of datasets, clearinghouse activities, and the full description of datasets;
  • geographic datasets, dataset series, and individual geographic features and feature properties.

ISO 19115:2006 defines:

  • mandatory and conditional metadata sections, metadata entities, and metadata elements;
  • the minimum set of metadata required to serve the full range of metadata applications (data discovery, determining data fitness for use, data access, data transfer, and use of digital data);
  • optional metadata elements - to allow for a more extensive standard description of geographic data, if required; -a method for extending metadata to fit specialized needs.

Though ISO 19115:2006 is applicable to digital data, its principles can be extended to many other forms of geographic data such as maps, charts, and textual documents as well as non-geographic data.

NOTE Certain mandatory metadata elements may not apply to these other forms of data.

Version: 2006

ISO 19115:2003 defines the schema required for describing geographic information and services. It provides information about the identification, the extent, the quality, the spatial and temporal schema, spatial reference, and distribution of digital geographic data.

ISO 19115:2003 is applicable to:

  • the cataloguing of datasets, clearinghouse activities, and the full description of datasets;
  • geographic datasets, dataset series, and individual geographic features and feature properties.

ISO 19115:2003 defines:

  • mandatory and conditional metadata sections, metadata entities, and metadata elements;
  • the minimum set of metadata required to serve the full range of metadata applications (data discovery, determining data fitness for use, data access, data transfer, and use of digital data);
  • optional metadata elements - to allow for a more extensive standard description of geographic data, if required; -a method for extending metadata to fit specialized needs.

Though ISO 19115:2003 is applicable to digital data, its principles can be extended to many other forms of geographic data such as maps, charts, and textual documents as well as non-geographic data.

NOTE Certain mandatory metadata elements may not apply to these other forms of data.

Version: 2003

This document defines the conceptual schema for spatial references based on geographic identifiers. It establishes a general model for spatial referencing using geographic identifiers and defines the components of a spatial reference system. It also specifies a conceptual scheme for a gazetteer.

Spatial referencing by coordinates is addressed in ISO 19111. However, a mechanism for recording complementary coordinate references is included in this document.

This document enables producers of data to define spatial reference systems using geographic identifiers and assists users in understanding the spatial references used in datasets. It enables gazetteers to be constructed in a consistent manner and supports the development of other standards in the field of geographic information.

This document is applicable to digital geographic data, and its principles may be extended to other forms of geographic data such as maps, charts and textual documents.

Version: 2019

ISO 19112:2003 defines the conceptual schema for spatial references based on geographic identifiers. It establishes a general model for spatial referencing using geographic identifiers, defines the components of a spatial reference system and defines the essential components of a gazetteer. Spatial referencing by coordinates is not addressed in this document; however, a mechanism for recording complementary coordinate references is included.

ISO 19112:2003 assists users in understanding the spatial references used in datasets. It enables gazetteers to be constructed in a consistent manner and supports the development of other standards in the field of geographic information. It is applicable to digital geographic data, and its principles may be extended to other forms of geographic data such as maps, charts and textual documents.

Version: 2003

This dataset defines the conceptual schema for the description of referencing by coordinates. It describes the minimum data required to define coordinate reference systems. This document supports the definition of:

  • spatial coordinate reference systems where coordinate values do not change with time. The system may:
    • be geodetic and apply on a national or regional basis, or
    • apply locally such as for a building or construction site, or
    • apply locally to an image or image sensor;
    • be referenced to a moving platform such as a car, a ship, an aircraft or a spacecraft. Such a coordinate reference system can be related to a second coordinate reference system which is referenced to the Earth through a transformation that includes a time element;
  • spatial coordinate reference systems in which coordinate values of points on or near the surface of the earth change with time due to tectonic plate motion or other crustal deformation. Such dynamic systems include time evolution, however they remain spatial in nature;
  • parametric coordinate reference systems which use a non-spatial parameter that varies monotonically with height or depth;
  • temporal coordinate reference systems which use dateTime, temporal count or temporal measure quantities that vary monotonically with time;
  • mixed spatial, parametric or temporal coordinate reference systems.

The definition of a coordinate reference system does not change with time, although in some cases some of the defining parameters can include a rate of change of the parameter. The coordinate values within a dynamic and in a temporal coordinate reference system can change with time.

This document also describes the conceptual schema for defining the information required to describe operations that change coordinate values.

In addition to the minimum data required for the definition of the coordinate reference system or coordinate operation, the conceptual schema allows additional descriptive information - coordinate reference system metadata - to be provided.

This document is applicable to producers and users of geographic information. Although it is applicable to digital geographic data, the principles described in this document can be extended to many other forms of spatial data such as maps, charts and text documents.

Version: 2019

ISO 19111:2007 defines the conceptual schema for the description of spatial referencing by coordinates, optionally extended to spatio-temporal referencing. It describes the minimum data required to define one-, two- and three-dimensional spatial coordinate reference systems with an extension to merged spatial-temporal reference systems. It allows additional descriptive information to be provided. It also describes the information required to change coordinates from one coordinate reference system to another.

In ISO 19111:2007, a coordinate reference system does not change with time. For coordinate reference systems defined on moving platforms such as cars, ships, aircraft and spacecraft, the transformation to an Earth-fixed coordinate reference system can include a time element.

ISO 19111:2007 is applicable to producers and users of geographic information. Although it is applicable to digital geographic data, its principles can be extended to many other forms of geographic data such as maps, charts and text documents.

The schema described can be applied to the combination of horizontal position with a third non-spatial parameter which varies monotonically with height or depth. This extension to non-spatial data is beyond the scope of ISO 19111:2007 but can be implemented through profiles.

Version: 2007

ISO 19111-2:2009 specifies the conceptual schema for the description of spatial referencing using parametric values or functions. It applies the schema of ISO 19111 to combine a position referenced by coordinates with a parametric value to form a spatio‑parametric coordinate reference system (CRS). The spatio‑parametric CRS can optionally be extended to include time.

The intended users of ISO 19111-2:2009 are producers and users of environmental information.

Parameters which are attributes of spatial locations or features, but which are not involved in their spatial referencing, are not addressed by ISO 19111-2:2009.

Version: 2009

ISO 19110:2016 defines the methodology for cataloguing feature types. This document specifies how feature types can be organized into a feature catalogue and presented to the users of a set of geographic data. This document is applicable to creating catalogues of feature types in previously uncatalogued domains and to revising existing feature catalogues to comply with standard practice. This document applies to the cataloguing of feature types that are represented in digital form. Its principles can be extended to the cataloguing of other forms of geographic data. Feature catalogues are independent of feature concept dictionaries defined in ISO 19126 and can be specified without having to use or create a Feature Concept Dictionary.

ISO 19110:2016 is applicable to the definition of geographic features at the type level. This document is not applicable to the representation of individual instances of each type. This document excludes portrayal schemas as specified in ISO 19117.

ISO 19110:2016 may be used as a basis for defining the universe of discourse being modelled in a particular application, or to standardize general aspects of real world features being modelled in more than one application.

Version: 2016

ISO 19109:2015 defines rules for creating and documenting application schemas, including principles for the definition of features.

The scope of this International Standard includes the following:

  • conceptual modelling of features and their properties from a universe of discourse;
  • definition of application schemas;
  • use of the conceptual schema language for application schemas;
  • transition from the concepts in the conceptual model to the data types in the application schema;
  • integration of standardized schemas from other ISO geographic information standards with the application schema.

The following are outside the scope:

  • choice of one particular conceptual schema language for application schemas;
  • definition of any particular application schema;
  • representation of feature types and their properties in a feature catalogue;
  • representation of metadata;
  • rules for mapping one application schema to another;
  • implementation of the application schema in a computer environment;
  • computer system and application software design;
  • programming.

Version: 2015

ISO 19108:2002 defines concepts for describing temporal characteristics of geographic information. It depends upon existing information technology standards for the interchange of temporal information. It provides a basis for defining temporal feature attributes, feature operations, and feature associations, and for defining the temporal aspects of metadata about geographic information. Since this International Standard is concerned with the temporal characteristics of geographic information as they are abstracted from the real world, it emphasizes valid time rather than transaction time.

Version: 2006

ISO 19107:2003 specifies conceptual schemas for describing the spatial characteristics of geographic features, and a set of spatial operations consistent with these schemas. It treats vector geometry and topology up to three dimensions. It defines standard spatial operations for use in access, query, management, processing, and data exchange of geographic information for spatial (geometric and topological) objects of up to three topological dimensions embedded in coordinate spaces of up to three axes.

Version: 2003

ISO 19104:2016 specifies requirements for the collection, management and publication of terminology in the field of geographic information.

The scope of this document includes

  • selection of concepts, harmonization of concepts and development of concept systems,
  • structure and content of terminological entries,
  • term selection,
  • definition preparation,
  • cultural and linguistic adaptation,
  • layout and formatting requirements in rendered documents, and
  • establishment and management of terminology registers.

ISO 19104:2016 is applicable to International Standards and Technical Specifications in the field of geographic information.

Version: 2015

ISO 19103:2015 provides rules and guidelines for the use of a conceptual schema language within the context of geographic information. The chosen conceptual schema language is the Unified Modeling Language (UML).

ISO 19103.2015 provides a profile of the Unified Modelling Language (UML).

The standardization target type of this standard is UML schemas describing geographic information.

Version: 2015

ISO TS 19103:2005 provides rules and guidelines for the use of a conceptual schema language within the ISO geographic information standards. The chosen conceptual schema language is the Unified Modeling Language (UML).

ISO TS 19103:2005 provides a profile of UML for use with geographic information. In addition, it provides guidelines on how UML should be used to create standardized geographic information and service models.

Version: 2005

This document defines a reference model for standardization in the field of geographic imagery processing. This reference model identifies the scope of the standardization activity being undertaken and the context in which it takes place. The reference model includes gridded data with an emphasis on imagery. Although structured in the context of information technology and information technology standards, this document is independent of any application development method or technology implementation approach.

Version: 2018

ISO 19101 defines a reference model for standardization in the field of geographic imagery processing. This reference model identifies the scope of the standardization activity being undertaken and the context in which it takes place. The reference model includes gridded data with an emphasis on imagery. Although structured in the context of information technology and information technology standards, ISO/TS 19101-2:2008 is independent of any application development method or technology implementation approach.

Version: 2008

The purpose of ISO 3166 is to define internationally recognized codes of letters and/or numbers that we can use when we refer to countries and their subdivisions. However, it does not define the names of countries – this information comes from United Nations sources (Terminology Bulletin Country Names and the Country and Region Codes for Statistical Use maintained by the United Nations Statistics Divisions).

Using codes saves time and avoids errors as instead of using a country's name (which will change depending on the language being used), we can use a combination of letters and/or numbers that are understood all over the world.

For example, all national postal organizations throughout the world exchange international mail in containers identified with the relevant country code. Internet domain name systems use the codes to define top-level domain names such as “.fr” for France, “.au” for Australia. In addition, in machine-readable passports, the codes are used to determine the nationality of the user and, when we send money from one bank to another, the country codes are a way to identify where the bank is based.

Version: 1.0.0

ISO 639 is a set of standards by the International Organization for Standardization that is concerned with representation of names for languages and language groups.

It was also the name of the original standard, approved in 1967 (as ISO 639/R) and withdrawn in 2002. The ISO 639 set consists of five parts.

Version: 1.0.0