SPAR Ontologies

Created on Jan 14th, 2021

A suite of Semantic Publishing and Referencing Ontologies. Homepage:


An ontology defining formally patterns for segmenting a document into atomic components, in order to be manipulated independently and re-flowed in different contexts.

FaBiO, the FRBR-aligned Bibliographic Ontology, is an ontology for recording and publishing on the Semantic Web descriptions of entities that are published or potentially publishable, and that contain or are referred to by bibliographic references, or entities used to define such bibliographic references. FaBiO entities are primarily textual publications such as books, magazines, newspapers and journals, and items of their content such as poems, conference papers and editorials. However, they also include blogs, web pages, datasets, computer algorithms, experimental protocols, formal specifications and vocabularies, legal records, governmental papers, technical and commercial reports and similar publications, and also anthologies, catalogues and similar collections.

The Essential FRBR in OWL2 DL Ontology (FRBR) is an expression in OWL 2 DL of the basic concepts and relations described in the IFLA report on the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR), also described in Ian Davis's RDF vocabulary.

Version: 1.0.1

The FAIR* Reviews Ontology (FR) defines a set of classes, properties and axioms, for describing research reviews as semantic objects, reusing standard existing vocabularies using ontology engineering techniques.

Version: 1.0.0

SCoRO, the Scholarly Contributions and Roles Ontology, is a CERIF-compliant ontology (summarised in the following picture) for use by authors, publishers and research administrators, for describe the contributions and roles of scholars, and the organizations of which they are members, with respect to projects, research investigations and other academic activities, and to the scholarly journal articles and other outputs that result from them.

Version: 1.9.1

The Publishing Workflow Ontology (PWO) is a simple ontology for describing the steps in the workflow associated with the publication of a document or other publication entity.

Version: 2.4.0

PSO, the Publishing Status Ontology, is an ontology written in OWL 2 DL for characterizing the publication status of a document or other publication entity at each of the various stages in the publishing process (e.g. draft, submitted, under review, rejected, accepted for publication, proof, published, Version of Record, catalogued, archived).

Version: 2014-02-01

The Publishing Roles Ontology (PRO) is an ontology for the characterisation of the roles of agents – people, corporate bodies and computational agents in the publication process. These agents can be, e.g. authors, editors, reviewers, publishers or librarians.

Version: 1.5.4

The Funding, Research Administration and Projects Ontology (FRAPO) is an ontology for describing the administrative information of research projects, e.g., grant applications, funding bodies, project partners, etc.

Version: 2017-09-04

The Five Stars of Online Research Articles Ontology (FiveStars) is an ontology written in OWL 2 DL to enable characterization of the five attributes of an online journal article - peer review, open access, enriched content, available datasets and machine-readable metadata.

Version: 1.0.0

The Document Components Ontology (DoCO) in an ontology that provides a structured vocabulary written of document components, both structural (e.g., block, inline, paragraph, section, chapter) and rhetorical (e.g., introduction, discussion, acknowledgements, reference list, figure, appendix).

Version: 1.3.0

DEO, The Discourse Elements Ontology, is an ontology written in OWL 2 DL that provides a structured vocabulary for rhetorical elements within documents (e.g. Introduction, Discussion, Acknowledgements, Reference List, Figures, Appendix), enabling these to be described in RDF. It uses some of the rhetorical block elements from the SALT Rhetorical Ontology and the Ontology of Rhetorical Blocks.

Version: 2015-07-03

The DataCite Ontology is an ontology written in OWL 2 DL to enable the metadata properties of the DataCite Metadata Kernel Specification version 3.1 to be described in RDF.

Version: 1.0.1

The Collections Ontology (CO) defines unordered collections (Set and Bag) and ordered collections (or List). This ontology has been inspired by the work “Putting OWL in Order: Patterns for Sequences in OWL” by Drummond et al. (OWL-ED 2006).

Version: 2.0.0

CiTO, the Citation Typing Ontology, is an ontology for the characterization of citations, both factually and rhetorically.

Version: 2.8.1

The Citation Counting and Context Characterisation Ontology (C4O) is an ontology that permits the number of in-text citations of a cited source to be recorded, together with their textual citation contexts, along with the number of citations a cited entity has received globally on a particular date.

Version: 1.2.0

The Bibliographic Reference Ontology (BiRO) allows the description of reference lists and bibliographic references themselves. In particular, BiRO uses an OWL-based definition of the FRBR model to define bibliographic references and their compilation into ordered bibliographic lists, by means of the Collections Ontology, as shown in the following figure.

Version: 1.1.1

The Bibliometric Data Ontology (BiDO) is a modular ontology that allows the description of numerical and categorical bibliometric data (e.g., journal impact factor, author h-index, categories describing research careers) in RDF.

Version: 1.2.0

The Argument Model Ontology (AMO) is an ontology that allows to describe argumentation according to the 'Toulmin Model of Argument'.

Version: 1.0.0