Structured Dynamics

Created on Aug 5th, 2020

After a decade of service, Structured Dynamics has ceased operations. Thank you for your support and interest through the years.

Similar services are now available from SD's successor, Cognonto. Please visit us there for your needs in semantic technologies and knowledge-based artificial intelligence. Homepage:


UMBEL, short for Upper Mapping and Binding Exchange Layer, is written in SKOS and OWL 2 and is an extracted subset of OpenCyc. UMBEL has two main functions; it is:

  • An upper ontology of about 35,000 reference concepts, designed to provide a common grounding for relating different ontologies or schema to one another, and
  • A vocabulary for aiding ontology and data mapping, including expressions of likelihood relationships distinct from exact identity or equivalence. This vocabulary is also designed for interoperating amongst various domain ontologies.

Version: 1.50.0

The Bibliographic Ontology Specification provides main concepts and properties for describing citations and bibliographic references (i.e. quotes, books, articles, etc) on the Semantic Web.

Used to describe authors, papers and publication information.